About Sodium

Sodium

American Heart association (AHA) Recommendation
Healthy American adults should eat less than 2,300 milligrams of sodium a day. This is about 1 teaspoon of sodium chloride (salt). To illustrate, the following are sources of sodium in the diet:
1/4 teaspoon salt = 575 mg sodium
1/2 teaspoon salt = 1,150 mg sodium
3/4 teaspoon salt = 1,725 mg sodium
1 teaspoon salt = 2,300 mg sodium
1 teaspoon baking soda = 1000 mg sodium

What are the common sources of sodium?
When you must reduce the amount of sodium (salt) you eat, be aware of both natural and added sodium content. Table salt is sodium chloride. It's 40 percent sodium by weight. When you buy prepared or packaged foods, read the labels. Watch for the words "soda" (referring to sodium bicarbonate, or baking soda) and "sodium" and the symbol "Na." These products contain sodium compounds.

Some drugs contain high amounts of sodium. Carefully read the labels on all over-the-counter drugs. Look at the ingredient list and warning statement to see if the product has sodium. A statement of sodium content must be on labels of antacids that have 5 mg or more per dosage unit (tablet, teaspoon, etc.). Some companies are now producing low-sodium over-the-counter products. If in doubt, ask your doctor or pharmacist if the drug is OK for you.

Most spices naturally contain very small amounts of sodium.
How can I reduce the sodium in my diet?
• Choose fresh, frozen or canned food items without added salts.
• Select unsalted nuts or seeds, dried beans, peas and lentils.
• Limit the amount of salty snacks you eat, like chips and pretzels.
• Avoid adding salt and canned vegetables to homemade dishes.
• Select unsalted, fat-free broths, bouillons or soups.
• Select fat-free or low-fat milk, low-sodium, low-fat cheeses, as well as low-fat yogurt.
• Specify what you want and how you want it prepared when dining out. Ask for your dish to be prepared without salt.
• Use spices and herbs to enhance the taste of your food.

Sodium: Are you getting too much?
You've been trying to eat less sodium — just a pinch of table salt on your baked potato and a dash to your scrambled eggs. But a pinch and a dash can quickly add up to unhealthy levels of sodium, especially when many foods already contain more than enough sodium. About 11 percent of the sodium in the average U.S. diet comes from adding salt or other sodium-containing condiments to foods while cooking or eating. But the majority of the sodium — 77 percent — comes from eating prepared or processed foods that contain the mineral. So even though you may limit the amount of salt you add to food, the food itself may already be high in sodium.
Are you getting too much? Here's where sodium sneaks into your diet and ways you can shake the habit.

Sodium: Essential in small amounts
Your body needs some sodium to function properly. Sodium:
• Helps maintain the right balance of fluids in your body
• Helps transmit nerve impulses
• Influences the contraction and relaxation of muscles

Your kidneys regulate the amount of sodium kept in your body. When sodium levels are low, your kidneys conserve sodium. When levels are high, they excrete the excess amount in urine.

If your kidneys can't eliminate enough sodium, the sodium starts to accumulate in your blood. Because sodium attracts and holds water, your blood volume increases. Increased blood volume, in turn, makes your heart work harder to move more blood through your blood vessels, increasing pressure in your arteries. Certain diseases such as congestive heart failure, cirrhosis and chronic kidney disease can lead to an inability to regulate sodium.

Some people are more sensitive to the effects of sodium than are others. People who are sodium sensitive retain sodium more easily, leading to excess fluid retention and increased blood pressure. If you're in that group, extra sodium in your diet increases your chance of developing high blood pressure, a condition that can lead to cardiovascular and kidney diseases.

How much sodium do you need?

Various organizations, including the National Academy of Sciences' Institute of Medicine, have published recommendations for daily sodium intake. Most recommend between 1,500 and 2,400 milligrams (mg) a day for healthy adults. A lower sodium intake has a more beneficial effect on blood pressure.

If you are older than 50, are black or have a health condition such as high blood pressure, chronic kidney disease or diabetes, you may be more sensitive to the blood pressure raising effects of sodium. As a result, aim for a sodium intake at the low end of the range recommended for healthy adults. Talk to your doctor about the sodium limit that's best for you.

Three main sources of sodium
The average U.S. diet has three main sources of sodium:
• Processed and prepared foods. Most sodium in a person's diet comes from eating processed and prepared foods, such as canned vegetables, soups, luncheon meats and frozen foods. Food manufacturers use salt or other sodium-containing compounds to preserve food and to improve the taste and texture of food.
• Sodium-containing condiments. One teaspoon of table salt has 2,325 mg of sodium, and 1 tablespoon of soy sauce has 1,005 mg of sodium. Adding these or other sodium-laden condiments to your meals — either while cooking or at the table — raises the sodium count of food.
• Natural sources of sodium. Sodium naturally occurs in some foods, such as meat, poultry, dairy products and vegetables. For example, 1 cup of low-fat milk has about 110 mg of sodium.


Whether food comes by its sodium naturally or not, your daily intake can add up quickly when you tally the sodium from all of your meals and snacks. Here's an example of how easily sodium adds up:
Food Amount of sodium
Breakfast
Scrambled eggs, 2 large 342 mg
Bacon, 1 slice 192 mg
Whole-wheat bread, 1 slice 148 mg
Butter, 2 teaspoons 54 mg
Total sodium for meal 736 mg

Lunch
Whole-wheat bread, 2 slices 296 mg
Ham, luncheon meat, 1 slice 350 mg
Mayonnaise, 1 tablespoon 105 mg
Dill pickle, 1 spear 385 mg
Pretzels, 1 ounce 486 mg
Orange, 1 large 0 mg
Total sodium for meal 1,622 mg

Dinner
Spaghetti noodles, 1 cup 179 mg
Spaghetti sauce, 1/2 cup 601 mg
Parmesan cheese, 1 tablespoon 76 mg
Green beans, canned, 1/2 cup 177 mg
Garlic bread, 1 slice 200 mg
Total sodium for meal 1,233 mg

Total sodium for the day 3,591 mg
Source: Department of Agriculture, Nutrient Data Laboratory, 2005

Low-sodium diet: Why is processed food so salty?
Q. Why do processed foods contain so much sodium?
A. Salt (sodium chloride) helps prevent spoiling by drawing moisture out of food so bacteria can't grow. Salt also kills existing bacteria that might cause spoiling. At one time, salting was one of the only methods available to preserve food.

But today, food manufacturers have many other preservation methods available — such as refrigeration, freezing, dehydration, irradiation and chemical preservatives. So why do they continue to use salt?
There are many reasons. In addition to making food more flavorful, salt makes soups thicker, reduces dryness in crackers and pretzels, and increases sweetness in cakes and cookies. Salt also helps disguise metallic or chemical aftertaste in products such as soft drinks.

Healthy adults need only between 1,500 and 2,400 milligrams (mg) of sodium a day. However, most Americans consume more than double that amount — due in large part to a heavy diet of processed foods.

To reduce sodium in your diet:
• Eat fewer processed foods such as potato chips, frozen dinners and cured meats.
• Choose foods labeled "low sodium" or "reduced sodium."
• Don't add salt to your food. Instead, use herbs and spices to flavor foods.
• Eat more unprocessed, fresh foods, such as fresh fruits, vegetables, lean meats, poultry, fish and unprocessed grains.

Keep in mind that if you have high blood pressure, are African-American, are older than age 50, or have a chronic condition such as kidney disease or diabetes, you should aim for less than 1,500 mg of sodium a day.

________________________________________
By Mayo Clinic Staff
Sep 7, 2006
© 1998-2008 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). All rights reserved. A single copy of these materials may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only. "Mayo," "Mayo Clinic," "MayoClinic.com," "EmbodyHealth," "Reliable tools for healthier lives," "Enhance your life," and the triple-shield Mayo Clinic logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research.

Be a savvy shopper: Find the sodium

Taste alone may not tell you which foods are high in sodium. For example, you may not think a bagel tastes salty, but a 4-inch oat-bran bagel has 451 mg of sodium.

So how do you identify foods high in sodium? The best way to determine sodium content is to read food labels. The Nutrition Facts label tells you how much sodium is in each serving. It also lists whether salt or sodium-containing compounds are ingredients. Examples of these compounds include:
• Monosodium glutamate (MSG)
• Baking soda
• Baking powder
• Disodium phosphate
• Sodium alginate
• Sodium nitrate or nitrite


How to cut your sodium intake

You may or may not be particularly sensitive to the effects of sodium. And because there's no way to know who might develop high blood pressure as a result of a high-sodium diet, choose and prepare foods with less sodium.

You can control your sodium intake several ways:

• Eat more fresh foods and fewer processed foods. Most fresh fruits and vegetables are naturally low in sodium. Also, fresh meat is lower in sodium than luncheon meat, bacon, hot dogs, sausage and ham are.
• Opt for low-sodium products. If you do buy processed foods, select those that have reduced sodium.
• Remove salt from recipes whenever possible. You can leave out the salt in many recipes, including casseroles, stews and other main dishes. Baked goods are an exception. Leaving out the salt could affect the quality as well as the taste of the food.
• Limit your use of sodium-laden condiments. Salad dressings, sauces, dips, ketchup, mustard and relish all contain sodium.
• Use herbs, spices and other flavourings to enhance foods. Learn how to use fresh or dried herbs, spices, zest from citrus fruit and fruit juices to jazz up your meals.
• Use salt substitutes wisely. Some salt substitutes or light salts contain a mixture of table salt (sodium chloride) and other compounds. To achieve that familiar salty taste, you may use too much of the substitute and actually not reduce your sodium intake. In addition, many salt substitutes contain potassium chloride. Though dietary potassium can lessen some of the harm of excess sodium, too much supplemental potassium can be harmful if you have kidney problems or if you're taking medications for congestive heart failure or high blood pressure that cause potassium retention.

Your taste for salt is acquired, so it's reversible. To unlearn this salty savoring, decrease your use of salt gradually and your taste buds will adjust. Most people find that after a few weeks of cutting their salt intake, they no longer miss it. Start by using no more than 1/4 teaspoon of added salt daily, then gradually reduce to no salt add-ons. As you use less salt, your preference for it lessens, allowing you to enjoy the taste of food itself.

________________________________________
By Mayo Clinic Staff
Dec 7, 2007
© 1998-2008 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). All rights reserved. A single copy of these materials may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only. "Mayo," "Mayo Clinic," "MayoClinic.com," "EmbodyHealth," "Reliable tools for healthier lives," "Enhance your life," and the triple-shield Mayo Clinic logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research.

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